Currency

A currency in the most specific sense is money in any form when in use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins. A more general definition is that a currency is a system of money (monetary units) in common use, especially for people in a nation. Under this definition, U.S. dollars (US$), euros (€), Japanese yen (¥), and pounds sterling (£) are examples of currencies. These various currencies are recognized as stores of value and are traded between nations in foreign exchange markets, which determine the relative values of the different currencies. Currencies in this …

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The National Archives · 1 January 1982 English

to the Russians: in 1981 72% of Soviet hard currency earnings came from energy exports. Afghan natural


The National Archives · 1 January 1982 English

A file containing documents concerning relations between the Soviet Union, the United States of America, and China. Subjects covered in the file include the need for European nations to study …

calculated investment in textiles as a short term hard currency earner, and would within three years be capable


The National Archives · 1 January 1982 English

severely limited by the availability of hard currency as by political considerations. 3. But if the the British market. Although shortage of hard currency restricts Czechoslovakia's growth potential as denim jeans production for sale in their hard currency shops, when I commented that this seems to be


The National Archives · 1 January 1982 English

A file of correspondence and reports concerning religion in Bulgaria. The documents cover a visit to Bulgaria and Romania by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Robert Runcie; details of Runcie's meetings …

actual fact the pastors were tried for various currency and customs offences and violations of the laws


The National Archives · 1 January 1982 English

Finance (a) Exchange Rate 1978 1979 1980 1981 Currency £1 Sterling = 1.91 2.02 1.99 1.91 Bulgarian Finance (a) Exchange Rate 1976 1977 1978 1979 Currency £1 Sterling = 1.69 1.82 1.91 2.02 Bulgarian (ii) Economic : To earn as much convertible currency as possible and to seek favourable treatment and this policy has forced her to resist hard currency imports. Prospects for manufactured imports are m i c : To earn as much c o n v e r t i b l e currency as p o s s i b l e and to seek f a v o u r a


The National Archives · 1 January 1982 English

$300m; and Hungary's attempts to address its economic issues by raising prices and devaluing its currency. Other documents in the file cover British policy towards Hungary, and the British wish to support

international banking m a r k e t to finance its hard currency t r a d e . Following the Polish debt c r i aim of achieving equilibrium in the convertible currency current account this year and lead to a large equilibrium by means of a big increase in the hard currency trade surplus. This was to be achieved by increasing subscription): and the radical increase in hard currency exports always seemed unlikely to be achieveable


The National Archives · 1 January 1982 English

A file of correspondence and reports concerning a country assessment paper for East Germany. The documents include drafts of the final report on the demography and geography of East Germany; …

the GDR has been attempting to reduce its hard currency indebtedness by boosting exports to the West while GNP Ratio 9.8 n/a (d) Estimated convertible currency debt to the West 8.6 10.9 US$ billion (ii) GNP Ratio 9.8 n/a (d) Estimated convertible currency debt to the West 8.6 10.9 USS billion (ii)


The National Archives · 1 January 1982 German

A file containing records of meetings between the visits commissioners of the Berlin Senate and the East German government. Subjects covered in these meetings included the construction and operation of …

importing prohibited printed material 5 importing GDR currency R E S T R I C T E D RESTRICTED l Preliminary c o m p l e x . There was a bus stop near the currency exchange o f f i c e . This bus stop was also a w s had been b r o k e n , the customs and currency regulations had been broken 326 times, and money


The National Archives · 1 January 1982 English

year and ail increase of l.Smt in sales to hard currency markets. Polish-Czech Cooperation in Mining


The National Archives · 1 January 1982 English

A file of correspondence and reports concerning political relations between Albania and the United Kingdom. The documents cover discussions on the possible resumption of relations between the British and Albanian …

and unjustly kept, such J as the Albanian gold currency frozen in London banks, be returned to our country^ been informed as to the resources in foreign currency available to the Albanian Government to meet the


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